Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Fish from Issiet River, Uruan, Nigeria

Environmental problems associated with water pollution are great. Obviously, the problems are connected to the damages done to the aquatic environment as a result of anthropogenic activities. Anthropogenic activities could have serious detrimental effects in the aquatic environment. These could go a long way in affecting the suitability of water and aquatic organisms from such an environment for human use. Levels of Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Co and Cd were evaluated in fish (Brycinus nurse) in order to assess the bioaccumulation of the trace metals in the fish with the view to ascertain the suitability of the fish from Issiet River in Uruan, Nigeria, for human consumption, The levels of the trace metals were also evaluated in water and sediment. Dry and wet seasons’ samples were collected and digested according to standard methods and analysed using Unicam 939/935 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Physicochemical properties were also quantified in water samples using standard procedures. The results revealed variable levels of the investigated parameters in the samples. Trace metals levels in fish ranged from 0.0031±0.00 mg/kg Cd to 0.298±0.01 mg/kg Fe for the two seasons. The trace metals levels in fish, water and sediment were below the permissible limits stipulated by WHO and USEPA. Bioaccumulation factor analysis of trace metals in fish revealed the range: 1.15 of Cd to 3.06 of Ni from water for the two seasons and 0.23 of Cd to 1.11 of Pb from sediment. In conclusion, the analysed fish, water and sediment contained variable levels of the investigated trace metals. Their levels in the fish were below the limits that could cause toxicity in human consuming the fish, at the time of the study. Periodic analyses of the investigated trace metals in the river are highly recommended for the purpose of documentation and monitory.

Bioaccumulation, Trace Metals, AAS, Fish, Issiet River, Uruan, Nigeria

APA Style

Henry, I. U., Uwah, E. I., Akpan, N. A., Udombeh, R. B., Udoidiong, O. M. (2023). Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Fish from Issiet River, Uruan, Nigeria. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 11(4), 40-48.

ACS Style

Henry, I. U.; Uwah, E. I.; Akpan, N. A.; Udombeh, R. B.; Udoidiong, O. M. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Fish from Issiet River, Uruan, Nigeria. Sci. J. Anal. Chem. 2023, 11(4), 40-48. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20231104.11

AMA Style

Henry IU, Uwah EI, Akpan NA, Udombeh RB, Udoidiong OM. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Fish from Issiet River, Uruan, Nigeria. Sci J Anal Chem. 2023;11(4):40-48. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20231104.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Girard, J. E. (2005). Principles of environmental chemistry, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Massachusessets, U. S. A., 47p.
2. Ajit, M. K. and Savale, P. A. (2012). Determination of physicochemical parameters of Deoli Bhorus dam water. Advances in Applied Science Research, 3 (1): 273-278.
3. Udosen, E. D. (2015). Concepts in Environmental Chemistry. Anikzo Global Ventures, Nigeria, 435p.
4. Uwah, E. I., Edem, E. M., Udosen, I. E., Udosen, E. D., and Udoidiong O. M. (2020). Quantification of pollutant levels in water, sediment and winkles in Akani Obio Uruan River, Nigeria. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 8 (2): 45 – 55. https://doi:10.11648/j.sjac.20200802.12.
5. Uwah, E. I; Raphael Umoh Okon, R. U; Essien D. Udosen, E. D and Okon M. Udoidiong, O. M. (2021). Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of elements in water, fish and sediment of Atabong River, Nigeria. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 9 (4): 77 – 87.
6. Akan, J. C., Mohmoud, S., Yikala, B. S. and Ogugbuaja, V. O. (2012). Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in fish samples from River Benue in Vinikilan, Adamawa. State, Nigeria. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 3: 727-736.
7. IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety) (2000). Hazardous chemicals in human and environmental Health: A Resource book for school, college and university students. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 91p.
8. Matsumoto, S. T., Janaina, R., Mario, S. M., and Maria, A. M. (2005). Evaluation of the genotoxic potential due to the action of an effluent contaminated with chromium, by the Comet Assay in CHO-K1 cultures. Caryologia, 58 (1): 40 – 46.
9. Li, Z., Mao, X. Z., Li, T. S., and Zhang, S. Y. (2016). Estimation of river pollution source using the space-time radial basis collocation method. Journal of Advanced Water Resource, 88: 68 - 79.
10. Richir, J, and Gobert, S. (2016). Trace elements in marine environments: occurrence, threats and monitoring with special focus on the coastal mediterranean. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 6 (349): 1-349.
11. Rasheed, M. N. (2001). Cadmium and lead levels in fish (Tilapia nilotica) tissues as biological indicator for lake water pollution. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 68: 75-89.
12. Eja, C. E., Ogri, O. R. and Arikpo, G. E. (2003). Bioconcentration of heavy metal in surface sediments from the Great Kwa river estuary. Calabar, Nigeria. Journal Nigeria Environmental Science, 1: 47-256.
13. Mouvet, C., Morhain, E., Sutter, C. and Counturiex, U. (1993). Aquatic mosses for detection and follow up of accidental discharges in surface water. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 67: 333-347.
14. Ekere, N. R., Ukoha, P. O., Udeogu, U. V. and Agbazue, V. E. (2014). Potential health risk assessment of heavy metals [Cd, Cu and Fe] concentrations in some important frozen fish species consumed in Nigeria. International Journal of Chemical Science, 12 (2): 366 - 374.
15. Uwah, E. I., Nwoke, I, B., Inam, E. J., Udosen, I. E. and Udosen, E, D. (2020). Human health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in New Calabar River. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 105 (2): 317 – 324. https://doi10.1007/s00128-020-02921-x
16. Arnot, J. A. and Gobas, F. A. P. C. (2006). A review of bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) assessments for organic chemicals in aquatic organisms. Environmental Review, 14: 257-297.
17. Ademoroti, C. M. A. (1996). Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology. Foludex Press Ltd. Ibadan. 215p
18. HACH, 1997. Water Analysis Handbook. Third Edition, HACH Company, Loveland, Colorado, USA
19. Muiruri, J. M. and Nyambaka, H. N. (2013). Levels of trace metals in water and tilapia fish from Athi-Galana, Sabaki tributaries, Kenya. International Food Research Journal, 20 (2): 891-896.
20. Eneji, I. S., Shaato, R. and Annune, P. A. (2011). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish (Tilapia villi and Clarias Gariepinus) organs from River Benue, North Central Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, 12 (1&2): 25-31.
21. Li, S. and Zhang, Y. (2010). Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace metals and heavy metals in the upper Han River, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 7: 1051-1058.
22. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry) (2000). Toxicological profile for chromium. Department of Health and Human services. Georgia, U. S. A.
23. Addo, M. A., Okley, G. M., Affum, H. A., Acquah, S., Gbadageo, L. K. and Senu, J. K. (2011). Level of some heavy metals in water and sediments of kpeshie Lagoon, Aecra, Ghana. Research Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 3 (5): 487- 496.
24. Chong, Y., Xuan, X., Zhu, L., Wang; J., Goa, Y., Yang, K., Shen, X. and Lou, B. (2013). Distribution of PAHS in surface water sediments and soils of Hangzhou city, China. Water Resources, 35: 3558 – 3568.
25. Dan, S. F., Umoh, U. U. and Osabor, V. N. (2014). Seasonal variation of enrichment and contamination of heavy metals in the surface water of Qua Iboe River Estuary and adjoining creeks, South-South. Nigeria. Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science, 5 (6): 45-54.
26. Qu, L., Huang, H., Xia, F., Liu, Y., Dahlgren, R., Zhang, M. and Mei, K. (2018). Risk analysis of heavy metal concentration in surface waters across the rural – urban interface of the Wen-Rui Tang River, China. Journal of Environmental Pollution, 237: 639 – 649.
27. Namrata, S. (2010). Physico-chemical properties of polluted water of River Ganga at Varanasi. International Journal of Energy and Environment. 1 (5): 823-832.
28. WHO (World Health Organisation) (2011). Guidelines for drinking water quality. WHO Library cataloging In-publication data, 4th ed. Retrieved on 30th June, 2019.
29. Ugwu, A. L. and Wakama, R. J. (2012). A study of seasonal physico-chemical parameters in River Usma. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 8 (5): 569-576.
30. FEPA (Federal Enviroment Protection Agency) (2003). Guidelines and standards for environmental pollution control in Nigeria, FEPA, Nigeria, 2038p.
31. Bhatti, M. T. and Latif, M. (2011). Assessment of water quality of a river using indexing approach during the low-flow season. Irrigation Drainage, 60: 103-113.
32. Abdo, M. H. and El-Nasharty, S. M. (2010). Physico-chemical evaluations and trace metals Distribution in water-surficial sediment of Ismailia Canal, Egypt, Nature and Science, 8 (5): 198-206.