Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2019, Page: 42-56
Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Using Modified and Unmodified Local Agriculture Waste
Mohammed Saleh Bashanaini, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Hadhramout University, Mukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen
Mohammed Hadi Al-Douh, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Hadhramout University, Mukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen
Hanan Saeed Al-Ameri, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Hadhramout University, Mukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen
Received: Apr. 7, 2019;       Accepted: May 23, 2019;       Published: Jun. 3, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjac.20190702.12      View  20      Downloads  8
Local agriculture waste (Shell’s seeds of Ziziphus spina christi) (SZC), in both its unmodified SZC and acid-modified (SZC-AC) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), pH surface, Boehm titration, including, other physical and chemical properties of adsorbent. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, solution of pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage were investigated in detail by batch adsorption experiments. For the adsorption of MG were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, equilibrium isotherms were applicable with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity wear 48.780 mg/g and 370.370 mg/g for the raw shells seeds of Ziziphus spina christi (SZC) and the activated carbon prepared from shells seeds by sulphuric acid SZC-AC, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on SZC and SZC-AC, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. The proposed adsorbents were successfully applied to the removal of malachite green dye from different water samples with a recovery % >95% and a relative standard deviation (RSD%) <3%.
Ziziphus spina christi, Malachite Green, FTIR, SEM, Boehm Titration
To cite this article
Mohammed Saleh Bashanaini, Mohammed Hadi Al-Douh, Hanan Saeed Al-Ameri, Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Using Modified and Unmodified Local Agriculture Waste, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 42-56. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20190702.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vakili, M., Rafatullah, M., Ibrahim, M. H., Abdullah, A. Z., Salamatinia, B., and Gholami, Z. “Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals”. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 232, 61, 2014. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-06746-9_3.
Connor, R., Renata, A., Ortigara, C., Koncagül, E., Uhlenbrook, S., Lamizana-Diallo, B. M. and Hendry, S. “The united nations world water development report 2017. Wastewater: The untapped resource”. The United Nations World Water Development Report.‏ 2017.
Gupta, V. K., Mittal, A., Krishnan, L. and Gajbe, V. “Adsorption kinetics and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using bottom ash”. Separation and Purification Technology, 40: 87, 2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2004.01.008.
Gupta, V. K. and Ali, I. “Environmental Water. Advances in Treatment, Remediation and Recycling”. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.‏ pp 209, 2013.
Mittal, A., Mittal, J., Malviya, A. and Gupta, V. K. “Adsorptive removal of hazardous anionic dye “Congo red” from wastewater using waste materials and recovery by desorption”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 340: 16, 2009. DOI: org/10.1016/j.jcis.2009.08.019.
Raval, N. P., Shah, P. U. and Shah, N. K. “Malachite green “a cationic dye” and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption”. Applied Water Science, 7, 3407, 2017. DOI 10.1007/s13201-016-0512-2.
Ghasemi, M., Mashhadi, S., Asif, M., Tyagi, I., Agarwal, S. and Gupta, V. K. “Microwave-assisted synthesis of tetraethylenepentamine functionalized activated carbon with high adsorption capacity for Malachite green dye”. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 213, 317, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2015.09.048.
Paz, A., Carballo, J., Pérez, M. J. and Domínguez, J. M. “Biological treatment of model dyes and textile wastewaters”. Chemosphere, 181, 168, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.046.‏
Maalej-Kammoun, M., Zouari-Mechichi, H., Belbahri, L., Woodward, S. and Mechichi, T. “Malachite green decolourization and detoxification by the laccase from a newly isolated strain of Trametes sp”. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 63, 600, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2009.04.003.
Magdalane, C. M., Kaviyarasu, K., Vijaya, J. J., Jayakumar, C., Maaza, M. and Jeyaraj, B. “Photocatalytic degradation effect of malachite green and catalytic hydrogenation by UV–illuminated CeO2/CdO multilayered nanoplatelet arrays: investigation of antifungal and antimicrobial activities”. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 169, 110, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.03.008.
Steter, J. R., Barros, W. R., Lanza, M. R. and Motheo, A. J. “Electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical processes applied to amaranth dye degradation”. Chemosphere, 117, 200, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.06.069. ‏
Nguyen, T. A. H., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W. S., Zhang, J., Liang, S., Yue, Q. Y. and Nguyen, T. V. “Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater”. Bioresource Technology, 148, 574, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.124.
Gao, R., Hu, Z., Chang, X., He, Q., Zhang, L., Tu, Z. and Shi, J. “Chemically modified activated carbon with 1-acylthiosemicarbazide for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace Cu (II), Hg (II) and Pb (II) from water samples”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172, 324, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.014.
Hu, L., Peng, Y., Wu, F., Peng, S., Li, J. and Liu, Z. “Tubular activated carbons made from cotton stalk for dynamic adsorption of airborne toluene”. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 80, 399, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtice.2017.07.029.
Hazzaa, R. and Hussein, M. “Adsorption of cationic dye from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from olive stones”. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 4, 36-51, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.eti.2015.
Sekar, M., Sakthi, V. and Rengaraj, S. “Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of lead (II) onto activated carbon prepared from coconut shell”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 279, 307-313, 2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2004.06.042.
Chowdhury, S., Mishra, R., Saha, P. and Kushwaha, P. “Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of malachite green onto chemically modified rice husk”. Desalination, 265, 159, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2010.07.047.‏
Kumar, K. V. and Porkodi, K. “Batch adsorber design for different solution volume/adsorbent mass ratios using the experimental equilibrium data with fixed solution volume/adsorbent mass ratio of malachite green onto orange peel”. Dyes and Pigments, 74, 590, 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2006.03.024. ‏
Akl, M. A., Mostafa, M. M. and Bashanaini, M. S. “Enhanced Removal of Some Cationic Dyes from Environmental Samples Using Sulphuric Acid Modified Pistachio Shells Derived Activated Carbon”. Journal of Chromatography. Separation. Techniques, 7, 1, 2016. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7064.1000329.
Wang, X. S., Zhou, Y., Jiang, Y. and Sun, C. “The removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions using agricultural by-products”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 157, 374, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.004.
Omri, A. and Benzina, M. “Characterization of activated carbon prepared from a new raw lignocellulosic material: Ziziphus spina-christi seeds”. Journal de la Société Chimique de Tunisie, 14, 175-183, 2012.‏
Auta, M. and Hameed, B. H. “Modified mesoporous clay adsorbent for adsorption isotherm and kinetics of methylene blue”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 198, 219, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.075.
Wang, H., Zhu, T., Fan, X. and Na, H. “Adsorption and desorption of small molecule volatile organic compounds over carbide-derived carbon”. Carbon, 67, 712-720, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2013.10.063.
Vijayalakshmi, P., Bala, V. S. S., Thiruvengadaravi, K. V., Panneerselvam, P., Palanichamy, M. and Sivanesan, S. “Removal of acid violet 17 from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from pistachio nut shell”. Separation Science and Technology, 46 (1), 155-163, 2010.‏ DOI: 10.1080/01496395.2010.484006.
Aljeboree, A. M., Alshirifi, A. N. and Alkaim, A. F. “Kinetics and equilibrium study for the adsorption of textile dyes on coconut shell activated carbon”. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: S3381, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.01.020.
Gomez-Serrano, V., Pastor-Villegas, J., Perez-Florindo, A., Duran-Valle, C. and Valenzuela-Calahorro, C. “FT-IR study of rockrose and of char and activated carbon”. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 36, 71, 1996. DOl: 10.1016/0I65-2370(95)00921-3.
Kumar, P. S., Palaniyappan, M., Priyadharshini, M., Vignesh, A. M., Thanjiappan, A., Sebastina, A., Fernando, P. and Srinath, R. “Adsorption of basic dye onto raw and surface‐modified agricultural waste”. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 33 (1), 87-98, 2013.‏ DOI 10.1002/ep.11756.
Silverstein, R. M., Webster, F. X. and Kiemle, D. J. “Spectrometric identification of organic compound”. 7th Ed., John Wiley and Son. Inc., USA, 2005.
Pavia, D. L., Lampman, G. M., Kriz, G. S. and Vyvyan, J. A. “Introduction to spectroscopy”. 5th Ed., Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA, 2014.
American Society for Testing and Materials. “Standard Test Method for Apparent Density of Activated Carbon”. Designation, D2854-09, 2009. DOI: 10.1520/D2854-09‏.
American Society for Testing and Materials. “Standard Test Method for Moisture in Activated Carbon”, Designation, D2867-09, 2009. DOI: 0.1520/D2867-09.
American Society for Testing and Materials. “Standard test method for total ash content of activated carbon”, Designation, D2866, 2011. DOI: 10.1520/D2866-11.
Othman, A. M. “Preparation of Sulfurized Granular Activated Carbon from Beji Asphalt Using Concentrated H2SO4”. Tikrit Journal of Pure Science, 13, 75, 2008.
Strelko Jr, V. and Malik, D. J. “Characterization and metal sorptive properties of oxidized active carbon”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 250 (1), 213-220, 2002. DOI: 10.1006/jcis.2002.8313.
Malik, D. J., Strelko, Jr. V., Streat, M. and Puziy, A. “Characterisation of novel modified active carbons and marine algal biomass for the selective adsorption of lead”. Water Research, 36, 1527, 2002. DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00348-7.
Namasivayam, C. and Kavitha, D. “Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste”. Dyes and Pigments, 54, 47, 2002. DOI: 10.1016/S0143-7208(02)00025-6.
Weng, C. H., Lin, Y. T. and Tzeng, T. W. “Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 417, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.04.080.
Bulut, Y. and Aydın, H. “A kinetics and thermodynamics study of methylene blue adsorption on wheat shells”. Desalination, 194, 259, 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2005.10.032.
Franca, A. S., Oliveira, L. S. and Ferreira, M. E. “Kinetics and equilibrium studies of methylene blue adsorption by spent coffee grounds”. Desalination, 249, 267, 2009. DOI; 10.1016/j.desal.2008.11.017.
Gong, R., Jin, Y., Chen, F., Chen, J. and Liu, Z. “Enhanced malachite green removal from aqueous solution by citric acid modified rice straw”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137, 865, 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.03.010.
Akl, M. A., Youssef, A. M. and Al-Awadhi, M. M. “Adsorption of acid dyes onto bentonite and surfactant-modified bentonite”. Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques, 4, 3, 2013. DOI: 10.4172/2155-98721000174.
Zhou, Y., Min, Y., Qiao, H., Huang, Q., Wang, E. and Ma, T. “Improved removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified cellulose by anhydride”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 74, 271, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.12.020.
Freundlich, H. and Heller, W. “The adsorption of cis-and trans-azobenzene”. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 61, 2228, 1939. DOI: 10.1021/ja01877a071.
Langmuir, I. “The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum”. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40, 1361, 1918. DOI: 10.1021/ja02242a004.
Gercel, O. and Gercel, H. F. “Adsorption of lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from biomass plant material of Euphorbia rigida”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 132, 289, 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2007.01.010.
Kushwaha, A. K., Gupta, N. and Chattopadhyaya, M. C. “Adsorption behavior of lead onto a new class of functionalized silica gel”. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, S81, 2017.‏ DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2012.06.010.‏‏‏
Ho, Y. S. and McKay, G. “Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochemistry”, 34, 451, 1999. DOI: 10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5‏.
Kannan, N. and Sundaram, M. M. “Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption on various carbons—a comparative study”. Dyes and Pigments, 51, 25, 2001. DOI: 10.1016/S0143-7208(01)00056-0‏.
Bhattacharyya, K. G. and Sharma, A. “Kinetics and thermodynamics of methylene blue adsorption on neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder”. Dyes and Pigments, 65, 51, 2005. DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2004.06.016.
Boyd, G. E., Adamson, W. and Myers, L. S. “The exchange adsorption of ions fraqueous solutions by organic zeolites; kinetics”. Journal of American Chemical Society, 69, 2881, 1947. DOI: 10.1021/ja01203a064.
Khattri, S. D. and Singh, M. K. “Removal of malachite green from dye wastewater using neem sawdust by adsorption”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 167, 1089, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.01.101.‏
Yu, M., Han, Y., Li, J. and Wang, L. “CO2-activated porous carbon derived from cattail biomass for removal of malachite green dye and application as supercapacitors”. Chemical Engineering Journal, 317, 493, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2017.02.105‏.
Garg, V. K., Kumar, R. and Gupta, R. “Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste: a case study of Prosopis cineraria”. Dyes and Pigments, 62, 1, 2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2003.10.016.
Chieng, H. I., Lim, L. B. and Priyantha, N. “Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies”. Environmental Technology, 36, 86, 2015. DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2014.938124.
Xing, Y. and Deng, D. “Enhanced adsorption of malachite green by EDTAD-modified sugarcane bagasse”. Separation Science and Technology, 44, 2117, 2009. DOI: 10.1080/01496390902775588.
Gong, R., Sun, J., Zhang, D., Zhong, K. and Zhu, G. “Kinetics and thermodynamics of basic dye sorption on phosphoric acid esterifying soybean hull with solid phase preparation technique”. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4510, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.08.061.
Browse journals by subject