Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Page: 56-65
Measurements for Natural Radioactive Materials at the East & West banks of The River Nile
Mohammed Aidarous El-Tayep, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Al-Zaiem Al-Azhari University, Om Durman, Sudan
Kh. M. Haroun, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Al-Zaiem Al-Azhari University, Om Durman, Sudan
Received: Apr. 20, 2017;       Accepted: May 8, 2017;       Published: Jul. 26, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjac.20170504.12      View  570      Downloads  44
Abstract
Soil samples were collected along the East and West banks of the River Nile region starting from Bait Al-mal in the West side and the second East bank of the River Nile Shambat. Gamma radiation measurements were performed using high resolution HPGe detector with low background PC multichannel spectrometer. The gamma measurements of the soil revealed the presence of the natural long-lived radioisotopes 238U, 232Th and 40K. The ranges of their activity concentrations were 3.32±1.1~6.3±2.1 Bqkg-1, 5.61±1.7~10.76±2.13 Bqkg-1 and 180±7.77~291±11.6 Bqkg-1 ‘respectively’. The other factors controlling the distribution of the detected natural radioisotopes have been discussed. Absorbed dose rates have been calculated for each location with range 15.27±0.82~21.07±1.53 nGyh-1. Also, the estimated activity utilization indexes have been presented. The ratios between the detected radioisotopes have been calculated.
Keywords
Uranium, Thorium, Potassium, Absorbed Dose Rate, Radiation Exposure
To cite this article
Mohammed Aidarous El-Tayep, Kh. M. Haroun, Measurements for Natural Radioactive Materials at the East & West banks of The River Nile, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 56-65. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20170504.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Flores OB, Estrada AM, Suarez RR, Zerquera JT, Pe´rez AH (2008) J Environ Radioact. 99:1834.
[2]
UNSCEAR (2000) "United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation", New York, United Nations, 2000.
[3]
Innocent AJ, Onimisi MY, Jonah SA Evaluation of naturally occurring radionuclide materials in soil samples collected from some mining sites in Zamfara State, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2013; 3(4): 684-692.
[4]
Harb S, Salahel DK, Abbady A, Mostafa M. Activity concentration for surface soil samples collected from Armant, Qena, Egypt. Proceedings of the 4th Environmental Physics Conference, Hurghada, Egypt. 2010; (4): 49-57.
[5]
Mehra R, Badhan K, Sonkawade RG, Kansal S, Singh S. Analysis of terrestrial natural radionuclides in soil samples and assessment of average effective dose. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. 2010;48:805-808.
[6]
Ibrahim FA, Mohammad IA. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment in the highlands of northern Jordan. Radiation Measurements. 2009;44:102-110.
[7]
John VM, Zordan SE. Research and development methodology for recycling residues as building materials. Waste Management. 2001;21(3):213-219.
[8]
Taskin H, Karavus M, Ay P, Topuzoglu A, Hindiroglu S, Karahan G. Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to the gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2009;100:49-53.
[9]
Uosif, M. A. M., \Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of Selected Samples from Nile River Sediments in Upper Egypt", Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 123, 215{220, 2007.
[10]
El-Gamal, A., Nasr, S., El-Taher, A., \Study of the Spatial Distribution of Natural Radioactivity in Upper Egypt Nile River Sediment", Radiation Measurements, 42, 457{465, 2007.
[11]
Dawood, Y. H., \Factor Controlling Uranium and Thorium Isotopic Composition of the Streambed Sediments of the River Nile, Egypt", JAKU: Earth Science, 21, 77{103, 2010.
[12]
Bridge, J. S., 2002. In: Malden, M. A. (Ed.), Rivers and Flood Plains: Forms, Processes and Sedimentary Records. Blackwell, Oxford.
[13]
El-Gamal, A., Saleh, I., Nasr, S., Naim, M., 2006. Radiological assessment of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. In: Isotopes in Environmental Studies, Aquatic Forum 2004, Proceedings of an International Conference held in Monaco, 25–29 October, 2004 organized by IAEA, IAEA-CN-118/31P, pp. 290–291
[14]
El-Tahawy, M. S., El-Moafy, W., Higgy, R., 2001. Radiological investigation of the East Nile estuary to the Mediterranean Sea. In: Ocean/atmosphere
[15]
Ibrahiem, N. M., Abd ElGhani, A. H., Shawky, S. M., Ashraf, E. M., Farouk, M. A., 1993. Measurement of radioactivity levels in soil in the Nile Delta and Middle Egypt. Health Phys. 64 (6), 620–627.
[16]
Khater, A. E., Ebaid, Y. Y., El-Mongy, S. A., 2005. Distribution Pattern of Natural Radionuclides in Lake Nasser Bottom Sediments, International Congress Series, vol. 1276, pp. 405–406.
[17]
Ismail, S. S., Unfried, E., Grass, F., 1994. Distribution of 137Cs and 228Ra in the sediments of Aswan High Dam Lake. J. Radioanalytical Nucl. Chem. 186 (2), 143–155.
[18]
NCRP, 1976. Environmental radiation measurement, recommendations of the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements, NCRP Report No. 50.
[19]
Saleh, I., El-Gamal, A., Nasr, S., Naim, M., 2006. Spatial and temporal variations of uranium and thorium series along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. In: Isotopes in Environmental Studies, Aquatic Forum 2004, Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Monaco, 25–29 October, 2004 organized by IAEA, IAEA-CN-118/113P, pp. 452–454.
[20]
Yu, K. N., Guan, Z. J., Stocks, M. J., Young, E. C., 1992. The assessment of natural radiation dose in Egyptian population from radiocontaminated food after Chernobyl accident. In: El-Raey, E. (Ed.), Regional Symposium on Environmental Studies (UNAR). Alexandria, Egypt
[21]
Shaban Ramadan Mohamed HARB -Khaled SALAHEL DIN -Abd Elbaset ABBADY-Mohamed Abd Elleh ALI Rolf MICHEL- Measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples from Upper Egypt (2008)
[22]
Bikit, I., Slivka, J., Veskovi´c, M., Varga, E., Žiki´c-Todorovi´c, N., MrYa, D., Forkapi´c, S., 2006. Measurement of Danube sediment radioactivity in Serbia and Montenegro using gamma ray spectrometry. Radiat. Meas. 41, 477–481.
[23]
Degens, E., Kempe, S., Richey, J. E., 1991. Biogeochemistry of major world rivers—Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, SCOPE-42.
[24]
Biogeochemical Coupling Symposium, organized by the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (IAPSO), IM01-15.
[25]
IAEA, 1989. Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment. A guidebook. Technical Reports Series No. 229, Vienna
[26]
Nordic, 2000. Naturally occurring radioactivity in the Nordic countries—recommendations, ISBN, 91-89230-00-0.
[27]
Durrance, E. M., 1986. Radioactivity in Geology, Principles and Applications. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, UK.
[28]
UNSCEAR Exposure from natural radiation sources, Annex-B. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation 2000
[29]
UNSCEAR, “Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation”, Report to General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes, United Nation, New York. (2000).
[30]
Mitchell, G., Mihalynuk, L., Heaman, L. M., 2001. Age of Mineralized Porphyry at the Logtung deposit W-Mo-Bi-Be (Beryl, Aquamarine), Northwest BC, British Columbia Geological Survey, Geological Fieldwork 2001, Paper 2002-1, pp. 35–40.
[31]
Vazquez, J. A., Shamberger, P. J., Hammer, J. E., 2005. Timing of extreme magmatic differentiation at Hualalai and Mauna Kea volcanoes from 238U, 230Th and U-Pb dating of zircons from plutonic xenoliths. In: AGU Fall Meeting, 5–9 December, 2000, Moscone Center West, San Francisco, CA, USA.
[32]
International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. 115, Safety Standards. IAEA, February 1996.
[33]
International BSS for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources. 115 safety standards, IAEA.
[34]
Measurement of some natural radionuclide in Elgash area (Sudan). Babiker AliA/ Rahma Mustafa M. OAhmed, Elameen and Adam KSam. University of Kasala, University of Khartoum and Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC).
[35]
Nuclear radiation and its biological effects recommendation 1999. Radiation exposure map based on fuzzy logic for the representation ofArea with high natural background, International Nuclear Atlantic conference-INAC 2009 Rio de janeiro, RJ, Brazil, September 27 to october 2,2009.
[36]
Radioactivity Levels in The Red Sea Costal Environment Of Sudan.. Adam K Sam, Mustafa M. O Ahmed, F. A. Alghangi.. Elis Holm. SAEC. University of Khartoum. radiation physics department Lund Sewden.
[37]
The national radioactivity in phosphate depositsfrom Sudan. Adam K Sam, Elis Holm United Nation Source and Effects Of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee On The Effects Of Atomic Radiation, 1993.
[38]
A. MUmber, M. Y. Onimisi and S. A. Jonah Baseline Measurement of Natural Radioactive in Soil, Vegetation and Water in Industrial District of theFederial CapitalTerritory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria.
[39]
Sarata Kumar SAHOO, Masah HOSODA, Sadatoshi KAMAGATA, Atsuyuki SORIMACHI, Tetsuo ISHIKAWA, Shinji TOKONAMI, Shigeo UCHIDA Thorium, Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Concentration in Weathered Japanese soil samples. Research Center for Radiation Protection, Natural Institute of Radiology Sciences, 4-9 Angawa, Inage-Ku, Chiba, 263- 8555, Japan
[40]
Abdullahi, M. A., Mohammed, S. S. and Iheakanwa, I. A. Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Soil Along the Bank of River Kaduua –Nigeria. Department of Applied Sciences of Science and Technology Kaduuna polytechnic, Kaduna- NIGERIA www.ajer.org
[41]
W. R ALHARBI, J. H HLZARANI and ADEL G. E ABBADY Assessment of Radiation Hazard indices from Granite rocks of the southeastern Arabian shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(6): 672-682, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178.
[42]
Michal Tzortzis and HaralabosTsertos Dept. of Physics, U. of Cyprus, Nicosia Stelios Christofides and George Christodoulides Medical Physics Dept, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus Gamma – ray measurement of natural occurring radioactive Samples from Cyprus characteristic geological rocks.
[43]
Dr. Kenneth H. Rubin, Department of Geology and Geophysics School of Ocean and Erath Sciences and Technology University of Hawaii 1680 East West Rd. Honolulu Hi 96822
[44]
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), soil sampling for environmental contaminants. IAEA-TECDOC-1415. 2004, Vinna: IAEA.
Browse journals by subject